Directive Principles of the Indian Constitution are the guidelines to be followed by the Government while framing policies. Articles 36-51 under Part-IV of the Indian Constitution deal with Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) which are borrowed from the Constitution of Ireland, which had copied it from the Spanish Constitution. Every Indian State must apply these Principles while making laws for each state as these constitute a very comprehensive social, economic and political programme for a modern welfare state. The Directive Principle of State Policy aims to provide for a welfare state characterized by social, economic and political justice.
Objectives of Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)
Abolishing untouchability and Gandhian goals of removing social and economic inequalities, rural development and provision for basic education, promotion and protection of small-scale industries were some of the objectives that were considered for the removal of poverty, disease and illiteracy. The other objective is to provide a welfare state characterized by social, economic and political justice and to strengthen the social and economic health of the Indian Democracy.
Features of Directive Principles of State Policy
- Part IV of the Indian Constitution provides several social and economic directives to the state which are to be secured while making policies and laws.
- Directive Principles of State Policy aims to provide for a welfare state characterized by social, economic and political justice.
- DPSPs are not enforceable. The people cannot approach or move to the Courts to get these principles.
- Directive Principles of State Policy promote and maintain international peace and security, just and honour relations between nations, respect for international law and treaty obligations as well as for the settlement of international disputes.
- It gives protection of monuments, places and objects of historic and artistic interest and national importance against destruction and damage.
- Preservation of the environment by safeguarding the forests and the wildlife.
- It also provides free and compulsory education for children below the age of 14 years.
- It also gives equal opportunity for both men and women.
- Protections against child abuse and exploitation of workers.
- It also helps in the organization of Village Panchayat which will work as an autonomous body in the village.
Classification of Directive Principles of State Policy
The Directive Principles of State Policy under Part IV contains Articles 36 to 51 Articles. They contain a set of ideals, directions and a set of rights. The Directive Principles are classified in the following heads:
1. Socio-economic Welfare: A large number of directive principles aim at the establishment of a welfare state. These principles contemplate and reflect the ideology of socialism and lay down the framework of a democratic socialist state.
- The state should try to secure the welfare of the people by securing a social order characterized by social, economic and political justice.
- The state should provide adequate means of livelihood to all citizens, men and women.
- The state should try to secure an equitable distribution of material resources in the community to ensure the common good.
- The state should provide equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
- The state should protect the health and strength of the workers, men and women and protect the children from difficult and hazardous jobs.
- The state should protect children and youth from exploitation and moral and material abandonment.
- The state should secure the right to work, the right to education and the right to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement.
- The state should make provisions for securing just and human work conditions and for maternity relief.
- The state should secure all worker’s work, a living wage, good conditions of work, a decent standard of life, and full enjoyment of rest and leisure.
2. Gandhian Directive Principles: These principles reflect the programme of reconstruction enunciated by Gandhiji during the national movement. To fulfil his dreams, some of his ideas were included in the Directive Principles.
- The state shall organize village Panchayat and give them adequate power and authority to enable them to function as self-government.
- The states shall promote with special care for the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, especially Schedule Tribe and Schedule Caste.
- The state shall preserve and improve the breeds and prohibit the slaughter of cows, calves and other milk and draught cattle.
- The state should try to promote cottage industries in rural areas.
- The state should try to secure the improvement of public health and the prohibition of intoxicating drinks and drugs.
3. Cultural and Educational Principles: These directives are related to educational and cultural issues.
- The state should provide free and compulsory education to all children up to the age of 14 years.
- The state should protect every monument place object or artistic or historic interest from destruction and removal.
4. Administrative Principles or Liberal-Intellectual Principles: These directives are included for administrative purposes.
- The state should secure the separation of the judiciary from the executive.
- The state should secure a uniform civil code for the entire country.
- The state should provide free legal aid to poor people so that justice is not denied to any citizen because of poverty.
- The state should ensure the participation of workers in the management of industry and other undertakings.
- The state should work to promote international peace and security.
- The state should foster respect for international law and treaty obligations.
- The state should encourage the settlement of international disputes by arbitration.
- The state should maintain just and honourable relations between nations.
The distinction between Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Rights
- Fundamental Rights are incorporated in Part III of the Indian Constitution under Articles 36-51 while Directive Principles of State Policy are incorporated in Part IV of the Indian Constitution under Articles 36-51.
- Fundamental Rights limit the state action whereas Directive Principles of State Policy are instructions to the government to do certain things and to achieve certain things through their actions.
- Fundamental Rights are justiciable but Directive Principles are non-justiciable.
- Fundamental Rights aim to establish political democracy by granting equality, liberty, religious freedom and cultural rights to its citizens while Directive Principles aim to establish social and economic democracy to sustain political democracy.
- Fundamental Rights are negative as they impose certain restrictions on the government. Directive Principles of State Policy are positive as they allow the state to endeavour to achieve certain goals.
- The basic rights that are guaranteed to Indian citizens by the Constitution of India are known as Fundamental Rights. Directive Principles of State Policy of the Indian Constitution are the guidelines to be followed by the Government of India while framing policies.
- Fundamental Rights were borrowed from the Constitution of the United States of America while Directive Principles were borrowed from the Iris Constitution.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE TO READ The National Human Rights Commission of India-12th October 1993