Basic Feature of Indian Constitution by Education Gk

The Feature of the Indian Constitution

The constitution of India was enforced on January 26, 1950, and contains 395 articles, 8 schedules, and 22 parts. The constitution of India currently contains 448 Articles, 25 Parts and 12 Schedules. It is the lengthiest constitution in the world. There are multiple features of the Constitution – Secular State, Federalism, Parliamentary form of Government, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties, and many more.

Feature of the Indian Constitution

  1. A long written constitution: the constitution of India is a written constitution which happens to be the lengthiest constitution in the world. It originally contained 395 articles, 8 schedules, and 22 parts. The constitution of India currently contains 448 Articles, 25 Parts and 12 Schedules.
  2. Both rigid and flexible: the constitution of India is both flexible and rigid. A rigid constitution means that special procedures are required for its amendments whereas a flexible constitution is one in which the constitution can be amended easily. Some provisions can be amended with difficulty while others can be amended very easily.
  3. Federal constitution: the constitution of India establishes a federal policy, which is created by dividing the country into states and allocating functions to them as specified in the constitution. There is a dual policy and division of powers between the center and the state. It also fulfills some other features of federalism such as the rigidity of the constitution, written constitution, a bicameral legislature, independent judiciary, and supremacy of the constitution. Thus, India was a federal system with unitary bias.
  4. Fundamental Rights and Duties: the constitution of India grants and guarantees fundamental rights to its citizens. These rights are justifiable and inviolable. The constitution of India substantiates the basic principle that every individual is allowed to enjoy certain basic rights and Part III of the Indian Constitution deals with those rights which are known as fundamental rights. Through the 42nd Amendment Act, of 1976 a list of fundamental duties has been added to our constitution by Article 51A. These duties cannot be judicially enforced. These duties and rights were added to balance civic freedom with civic obligations. Fundamental duties are guiding principles to remind civilians about their fundamental obligations and expectations.
  5. Universal Adult Franchise: All those who have completed the age of 18 years and above should be given the right to vote in every election without discrimination based on caste, color, creed, gender, or place of birth. Universal Adult Franchise removes social inequalities and maintains the principle of political equality for all its citizens.
  6. Directive Principle of State Policy: DPSP is a significant feature of the Indian Constitution. Part IV of the Indian Constitution contains a set of directives to the state and its agencies that they are expected to keep in mind while framing the policies. These principles are like directives to the government of India to implement them to maintain social and economic democracy in the country. The directive principles are not justifiable that is they cannot be enforced by a court like fundamental rights.
  7. Independence of Judiciary and Judicial Review: The constitution of India provides for an integrated and independent judicial system. The Supreme Court is the highest court of India with authority over all the other courts in India followed by High Courts, District Courts, and other lower courts. To protect the Judiciary from any influences by other organs of Government, the Constitution has laid down certain provisions such as Security of Tenure and Fixed Service Conditions for judges, etc.

The Judiciary has a significant position in the Constitution of India and it is also made independent of the legislature and the executive, which means that the other organs of the Government cannot interfere in the working of the Judiciary. The Supreme Court of India stands at the peak of a single integrated judicial system and acts as the guardian protector and interpreter of the Constitution. It works as a defender of the fundamental rights of Indian citizens and protector and guardian of the Indian Constitution.

The constitution of India is unique because of its salient features. It is the lengthiest written liberal democratic constitution in the world. The Constitution of India provides for a mixture of Federalism and Unitarianism, and flexibility and rigidity. With all these features, the Constitution of India is a constitution best suited to the Indian environment. The Constitution has been helping India to organize and run her government and administration virtually both in times of war and peace. The remaining features of the Constitution are the Secular State, Parliamentary form of Government, single citizenship, the preamble, etc.

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