Features of Indian Federalism Class 10 Q&A

Indian Federalism
1. Analyse the special features of the Indian Federalism which make it differ from other federations of the world. 

Ans: The special features of Indian Federalism which make it different from other federations of the world are:

  1. Unlike other federations, in India, the Centre is more powerful than the States. The Union List has more subjects and they are of national importance. Again, on the subjects under the Concurrent List, the Centre has been given more powers.
  2. In most of the countries’ federation, dual citizenship is given; however, in India, we have single citizenship.
  3. The parliament is empowered to form a new single state by separation of territory from any state or by uniting two or more states. For example, the new states of Uttarakhand, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh were carved out of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh respectively in 2000.
  4. The Governor of the state has the power to recommend the dismissal of the state government and the dissolution of the Assembly. The Governor also has the power to reserve a bill passed by the state legislature for the assent of the President.

Indian federalism is a mixture of both federal and unitary systems of government which makes it different from other countries’ federations.

2. Mention any four among the subjects which have been transferred from the State List to the Panchayati Raj Institution by the 11th Schedule of the Indian Constitution.

Ans: The four subjects that have been transferred from the State List to the Panchayati Raj Institution by the 11th Schedule of the Indian Constitution are –

  1. Agriculture
  2. Rural Housing
  3. Drinking water
  4. health and sanitation
3. What is federalism? Mention the two main tier systems of the Indian government.

Ans: Federalism is a system of government in which the power is constitutionally divided between a central government and various regional units.

The two main tier systems of the Indian Government are – (i) the Union or Centre level government and (ii) State level government.

4. What is decentralization? Mention the factors behind the decentralization of power in India.

Ans: When the power is taken away from central and State governments and transferred to autonomous local self-government, then it is called decentralization.

The factors behind the decentralization of power in India are –

  1. Several states of India are bigger than other independent European countries. For example, Uttar Pradesh is bigger than Russia in terms of population; Maharashtra is as big as Germany. For the sake of efficiency and proper functioning of administration, a state had to give some of its powers to local self-government.
  2. A large number of issues and problems are best settled at the local level because these may be different in different localities of the same state and maybe the local ones could bring possible solutions for their regions.
  3. People at the local level have better knowledge of the problems and solutions at the local level. They know their problems very well and have original and better ideas to spend money wherever needed and to better manage the resources.
  4. If local people directly participate in the processes of governance, democracy is strengthened at the grassroots level.

Our national leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru emphasized the need for setting up local self-government. The Directive Principles of State Policy (Article 40) directs the government to organize village panchayats as units of self-government.

Also Read Federalism: Nature of Indian Federal Structure Class 10 Notes

5. In India, the distribution of power between the centre and the state indicates that the centre has been made stronger by the constitution at the cost of the state. Justify this statement by giving any four points.

Ans: In distributing the power between the centre and state government, more power has been given to the central government in the following ways –

  1. Unlike other federations, in India, the Centre is more powerful than the States. The Union List has more subjects and they are of national importance. Again, on the subjects under the Concurrent List, the Centre has been given more powers.
  2. Those subjects which do not fall within the union list, state list and concurrent list are put under the residuary subjects over which the union government has the power to make laws.
  3. The constitution of India has made provisions for an emergency. It specifies certain conditions under which an emergency can be declared. At the time of emergency, the central government has been given more powers than the state government.
  4. The Governor of the state has the power to recommend the dismissal of the state government and the dissolution of the Assembly. The Governor also has the power to reserve a bill passed by the state legislature for the assent of the President.
6. Which countries follow the ‘coming together and holding together’ style of federalism?

Ans: The countries which follow the ‘coming together’ style of federalism are the USA, Switzerland and Australia and the countries which follow the ‘holding together’ style of federalism are India, Spain and Belgium.

You Might Also Like to Read Indian Foreign Policy – its Principles and Objectives Notes

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